Ancient concrete, cement, mortar, masonry and Torba
Ancient construction materials include concrete, cement (geopolymers), mortar (Lime and Gypsum) and, especially in Malta, Torba which is ancient Maltese concrete.
Maltese Torba is limestone based concrete or cement used to construct the Temples by Malta's Temple Builders. There is evidence that this ancient mortar, cement, aggregate concrete, Torba were used to in the construction of the astronomy/solar observation complex near the Dingli Cliffs, Malta.
Ancient concrete used for masonry blocks
Malta's Torba and aggregate concrete was used to help construction the buildings, cement the megaliths in place, fill the gaps but was it also used to create the large boulders and smaller masonry building blocks themselves?
Where some of the building blocks and slabs formed by using Torba (Maltese ancient cement) and aggregates of stones, boulders and small rocks?
Maltese Torba used as "plinth course"
The Maltese Torba at the astronomy/solar observation complex appears to have been used as a "plinth course" to secure or place the larger boulders on.
Or is the Maltese Torba concrete and rubble that you can see part of the eroded boulders showing what the boulders where formed of?
The photographs above show a large boulder and its base is Maltese Torba concrete, used as a foundation. If the top of the hill was constructed similar to Peru's Thirteen Tower of Chankillo then did the Maltese Torba concrete/cement extend across the whole top of the ridge?
If it did can this explain why there is rubble of small stones across the hilltop? Can this also explain why around Malta you can find circular mounds of the orange earth/clay with rubble on top of it? Are these the remains of buildings constructed using Malta's Torba cement and aggregate concrete?
Maltese ancient concrete (Torba) and building walls
These photographs seem to show that Malta's ancient Torba, in its conglomerate concrete form, was also to construct walls and structures.
Is the Maltese Torba concrete used here as a Limestone mortar (possible a limestone and Gypsum mortar combination in some cases) to cement the blocks together, does it form part of the blocks themselves or where the rough blocks covered in the limestone Torba cement/concrete? Covering the blocks in ancient Torba would be similar to what the Egyptians did to their limestone blocks at the Pyramids of Giza.
Smog-eating cement and Conductive concrete?
Conductive concrete includes steel or carbon fibres to create pavement or building material that conducts electricity. Unlike the process of embedding wires or sensors in traditional concrete, the addition of fibres does not degrade mechanical properties or durability. Potential uses include heating sections of a roadway or runway to melt ice during winter, floor heating and monitoring in buildings and military applications. The ice-melting potential of conductive concrete is being used on the Roca Spur Bridge near Lincoln, Nebraska.
Conductive concrete | Cement Association of Canada
Why does some of the Torba appear a red/orange colour? On the hilltop itself there is the Blue Clay of Malta, why was this not used? Maybe the red soil has a specific property that the Temple Builders desired for their solar observatories. Could it conduct the natural power of the Electric Universe better than any other type of material they could have used? Was the red Torba used for a different purpose that we don't know about or could not even guess at?
Smog-eating cement was named one of TIME Magazine's Best Inventions of 2008. Ordinary cement is mixed with a photo-catalyzer (titanium dioxide) that speeds up the natural process that breaks down smog into its component parts. Developed by an Italian firm over a period of 10 years, the smog-eating cement was used to make concrete for a busy street in Segrate, Italy, and they claim it has reduced nitric oxides in the area by as much as 60%. As a bonus, structures made with smong-eating cement stay cleaner too.
smog-eating cement | Cement Association of Canada
The ancient cultures knew about admixtures that changed the properties of concete/cement. Malta is a limestone island, has clay, some pebble beaches, soil, red sand and some soil. Could the Temple Builders have used limestone kilns to produce better concrete?
Joseph Aspdin created the first true artificial cement by burning ground limestone and clay together. The burning process changed the chemical properties of the materials and Joseph Aspdin created a stronger cement than what using plain crushed limestone would produce.
history of concrete | prontormc
On Malta there is an amazing EU Crater called Il-Maqluba, the books will tell you its a sinkhole or a doline. If you visit it you will have a hard job believing what you are officially told. By the last steps that lead down to the observation platform there is what is called a "Tank". Is it an ancient limestone kiln? Did the ancient Maltese Temple Builders have more advanced knowledge than we credit them? Its amazing that we dont credit them with advanced knowledge yet the ancient cultures built the most amazing buildings that are still standing today.
Or are they red/orange because of an Electric Universe Catastrophe event that struck the island of Malta and the rest of the Earth? Material being zapped with high amounts of electrical current and electro-magnetic fields, transmuting the material? An explanation for why some of these rocks are red, why the syncline at Fomm Ir-Rih is red/orange and why there are amazing red/orange areas of conglomerate rock in Malta?
** Malta's Dingli Cliffs astronomy observatories | home page
** Malta's Dingli Cliffs astronomy observatories | standing stones, markers and avenues
** Gnejna Bay Malta | horizon solar observatory
** EYE photographs of Malta's astronomy observatory complexes
** Forum DIScussion on Malta's astronomy observatories
** Everything Is Electric (EIE) articles index/sitemap